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Mustard as a Cover Crop

  • 3 min read

What is a cover crop?

A cover crop is a non-cash crop, often grown between main crop seasons, that helps improve soil health, minimize soil erosion, control weeds, and alleviate nutrient imbalances. There are numerous cover crops to choose from, and one of them is mustard.

Why should I consider using mustard as a cover crop?

Mustard has several benefits when used as a cover crop:

  • Weed suppression: Mustard’s dense growth and allelopathic properties help smother weeds, reducing competition for nutrients and sunlight.
  • Soil improvement: Mustard’s deep-rooting nature helps break up compacted soil, improves drainage, and promotes soil aeration.
  • Nutrient recycling: Mustard takes up excess nutrients from the soil, preventing them from leaching into groundwater or being lost through erosion.
  • Pest control: Mustard can act as a natural biofumigant, releasing compounds that suppress soil-borne pests and pathogens.

When and how should I plant mustard as a cover crop?

Mustard can be planted in either spring or fall, depending on your region. It is best to sow mustard as soon as your main cash crop is harvested. The steps to plant mustard as a cover crop are as follows:

  1. Prepare the soil: Clear the area of any debris and weeds, and ensure the soil is properly tilled and leveled.
  2. Sow the seeds: Broadcast the mustard seeds evenly across the prepared soil, aiming for a seeding rate of around 20-30 pounds per acre.
  3. Watering: Immediately after sowing, gently water the seeds to help with germination.
  4. Maintenance: Keep an eye on moisture levels and provide supplemental irrigation if necessary. Monitor for pests and diseases, and address any issues promptly.
  5. Termination: In spring, you can terminate the mustard by mowing or tilling it into the soil around two weeks before planting your cash crop. In fall, you can allow the mustard to winterkill, providing additional organic matter to the soil.

Which mustard variety should I choose?

There are different mustard varieties suitable for use as cover crops, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea). It is best to consult with your local agricultural extension office or a knowledgeable seed supplier to determine the best mustard variety for your specific growing conditions and objectives.

Are there any precautions or considerations when using mustard as a cover crop?

While mustard is generally safe to use as a cover crop, there are a few precautions to consider:

  • Allergies: Mustard is part of the brassica family, so individuals with known mustard allergies should avoid close contact with the crop.
  • Rotation: To prevent disease buildup, avoid planting mustard in the same location year after year. Rotate with other cover crops and cash crops.
  • Regulations: Make sure to check local regulations regarding cover crop selection and management practices, as they may vary.

Overall, mustard can be a valuable cover crop option to improve soil health and maximize the productivity of your growing space. Give it a try and enjoy the benefits it brings!